Challenges in Introducing Value Education at Higher Education in India

Value Education is the much debated and discussed subject in the plethora of education in India. Of course it is true that the main purpose of any education will go with Value orientation. More concentration on Value education has been given at the primary and secondary level of school education than in higher education in India. Values could be effectively imparted to the young minds rather than to the matured ones. It may be the important reason for this prime importance given at the school level. There are so many modules designed with the help of agencies like NCERT and others for effectively imparting the value education to the school students. In this context, many innovative educational practices are being identified by the experts. Good number of experiments and studies are being conducted in the recent days on the effectiveness of teaching value education at school level. Some schools have very innovative and radical course designs to impart the values.

Effective teaching practices in imparting value education ranges from story telling, exhibitions, skits, one act play and group discussions to various other formats. New methods have been evolved by educationists to create an effective learning sphere. The usage of electronic gadgets also gains importance in the teaching-learning practices of value education. But at the higher education level, due to various reasons, the importance given to value education is not as much as it is given at the school level. The curriculum and the teaching methods also could be subjected to scrutiny. It is true that colleges are meant for a kind of specialization in some field of education. But in the Indian social context, the youth require direction and counseling at this stage. They have been exposed to various challenges at this stage which demands the intervention of educationists for his/her betterment. His/her character building also strengthens at this juncture. Students’ perception on various life factors and events are getting shaped at this stage. On the whole they evolve their own philosophy of life. Their sensitivity and knowledge are getting direction at this stage. Hence, an effective value orientation becomes inevitable to the students of colleges. Keeping this requirement in mind, States like Tamilnadu introduced a compulsory paper/course on value education to undergraduate students of all colleges in the State under the choice based credit system. Though this kind of effort is made with the good intention of imparting values to the youth, many limitations in bringing out the expected outcome could be identified.

The problem mainly begins with the definition of values. Defining the term ‘value’ poses a challenge to all scholars. The term value is loaded with varieties of meaning. Each meaning reflects its own philosophical position. Generally the term value is spontaneously associated with religious values. It is believed by many Indians that values are nothing but the religious and spiritual guiding principles of life. Hence, it is supposed that the path is already been laid for the life journey. But in the context of modernity and modernism there rises a fundamental question of whether value education is required at all in a modern state. There are those who argue that modern life is based on science and technology, and both are value neutral. They view that the values are bugbear held out by people living in the past, glued to outdated religious principles that have no relevance to the 21st century. At this point, there is also another group of modernist who propagate the necessity of value education at learning centres in order to safe guard the democratic state and its values. The values they wish to cultivate are modern secular values such as honesty, respect to other, equality, collectivity, democracy, respecting the human rights, sharing equal space in the public sphere and so on. These values are considered as the products of enlightenment period. Hence, four positions could be arrived at on the basis of the above understanding. The are:
1. There are religious values which are very much essential for every one and must be included in the curriculum.
2. The religious values should not find place in the educational system. They may operate at the private sphere.
3. There are non-religious secular values and they must find space in the education.
4. There is no need for teaching value education in the academics because they cannot be cultivated through formal learning and such value cultivation will make the individual biased.

In consequence to these positions, following questions arouse.
1. Whether value education should find place in the educational system?
2. If it is required, then what sort of values should be given preference in the curriculum?
3. What is the importance to be given to the religious values which are primarily developed on the basis of scriptures?
4. Can modern values alone are sufficient enough or is there any possibility of blending the values of modernity with religious values?
5. If religious values are to be given importance in the curriculum, which religion will find prime place? If there are contradictory propagation on a single virtue by two religions, then how are they to be handled?
6. Similarly religions differ on the practices also. Right from eating patterns, dress mode, marriage systems, war tactics, killing, punishments to various other aspects, religions differ on their outlook. In this situation, what sort of perceptions need to be taught?

Besides these questions, another billion dollar question would be raised on the methodology of effectively imparting those values. Then again as it is mentioned earlier, the school education can very well include this education easily because the system itself is advantageous for it to accommodate. But at the college level, the system finds it very difficult to work out. So this study could analyse the theoretical problems relating to the identification of values to be included in the curriculum at the one side and the problem of effective designing of the curriculum and imparting those values on the other side.

II

The necessity for imparting values to the students of all levels has been felt by everyone. The world today is facing unprecedented socio-political and economic challenges. Problems of life are becoming increasingly intense and complex. Traditional values are decentered. ‘An environment of strife pervades all countries and broken homes have become common. An insatiable hunger for money and power, leads most of people to tension and absence of peace of mind and all kinds of physical and mental ailments have become common place” 1. In the present day context of frequent and often violent social upheavals, we have to look at the problem of restlessness of the youth, their frustration born out of futility of their search for meaning of life and the purpose for which they are living, often leading to evil and wickedness. This calls for a new approach to, and a new vision of education. It is obviously felt that the present educational system promotes rat race and keep the student community in a sense of insecurity. Educational institutions have become the pressure cookers building pressures in the minds of youth. Also a loft sided educational pattern which insists on instrumental and technical rationality for the successful life in terms of gaining money and power has invaded the educational system of India. The person who is deemed to be unfit for this survival race becomes disqualified and ineligible to live in this market economy based life. The spate of industrialization and economic growth in developed nations has brought about a perceptible change in this scenario. And developing countries including India are feeling the ripple effects of this development. Values earlier considered essential by all societies have been eroded and have given way to unethical practices around the globe. Where honesty and integrity were loved and appreciated, greed, corruption and red tapism have come in, bringing in their wake, unethical responses which have pervaded all walks of life and are thwarting efforts of a few enlightened individuals to promote value based society.2 Hence, implementation of well structured education is the only solution available with all states. With growing divisive forces, narrow parochialism, separatist tendencies on the one hand and considerable fall in moral, social, ethical and national values both in personal and public life on the other, the need for promoting effective programmes of value orientation in education has assumed great urgency. Development of human values through education is now routinely seen as a task of national importance. Value education though supposes to be the part and parcel of the regular education, due to the market influences, it could not be so. Hence, it has become an inevitable need to include an exclusive curriculum for value education at all levels.

Now the next question would be about the nature of value education. What sort of values should be given preference in the curriculum is the prime problem in the introduction of value education. This problem surfaces because we can find varieties of values prescribed on the basis of various scriptures and theories. Sometimes they are contradictory to each other. This issue has been thoroughly discussed earlier. But the solution to the problem of the nature of value education is primarily dependent on the social conditions that prevail in the state. There need not be an imported value educational pattern to be prescribed in India. The burning social issues would demand the required value education. Though India is considered to be the land of divinity and wisdom, the modern value system throws challenges to the ancient value pattern. Right from the Gurkula pattern to the varna ashrama values, all values are under scrutiny by modern rationality. Hence, the relevance of the golden values prescribed by the then society is questionable in the present situation. On the other hand, the so called modern values which have been listed earlier also subjected to criticism by philosophers like post modernists. They question the very nature of the rationality of the enlightenment period. Because critics of modernity strongly declare that the modern rationality is the reason for the deterioration of human concern in the world and they paved the way for inhuman killing and escalation of values. The reason of the modernism is considered as the root of power politics which leads to inhuman behaviour of the power system, according to them. Hence the modern values like democracy, civil rights, environmental ethics, professional ethics, discipline and all such values are found useless in bringing harmony in the society. The values like discipline, tolerance, peace bears the negative connotation in this context. Hence, what sort of modern values are to be included in the curriculum is a challenge thrown towards the educationists. At one side the fanatic and fundamentalist features of religious values and on the other side the modern values based on the market economy and other factors are to be excluded and a well balanced curriculum with genuine worthy values suitable to the society has to be identified and included in the educational system. In this context, it becomes obvious that there cannot be any universal pattern of values to be prescribed in the system. When a suitable blend of religious and modern values is to be done, the designing of such course demands an unbiased, scrupulous, intelligent approach on the part of the academician who designs such course. Thus the spiritual values of sensitizing the youth for happy world and rational values for a just world are very much required. Religious values can be taken but not with the label of any particular religion, democratic values are to be included but not with its dogmatic inhuman approach. Thus there need a perfect blend of both. This is the real challenge thrown to the Indian academicians.

After the identification of these values, they need to be inculcated not to be informed to the students. Mostly listing the values is done very easily, but imparting them effectively requires genuine spirit and innovative educational practices. In the Vedic period, the gurukula system prevailed in which the student has to thoroughly undergo a pattern life with the guru shishya hierarchy. Whatever the guru declares are the values of life. But in the modern context, which is supposed to be the democratic sphere, a sense of equality and freedom has to prevail the learning situation. Also the values identified cannot be preached on the basis of the religious faiths. So the teacher has to find effective working module to internalize the values in the minds of the youth. The teachers’ understanding about the values prescribed and his/her commitment in imparting them also play a crucial role here. How to sensitize the teacher before carrying the values to the students is also a challenge to the educationists. The value education class room, if it is dealt with full seriousness and sincerity would be very interesting and challenging sphere for students and teachers. At times they need to sail at the same level with the students. The hierarchy may get disappeared. Value education demands a total responsibility from the teachers. They become more accountable. On the other side, a teacher who is committed to a set of values would always like to preach and impose them on the young minds. That extreme should also to be avoided with a balance of mind. Value education cannot be done by just delivering lectures and screening films. It requires a strong interaction between the students and the society. A lot could be experimented at this sphere. For which the supreme value ‘integrity’ is expected from the educator.

It is observed that many modules of teaching values have been designed and tested. Some are seemed to be very effective. In Tamilnadu, especially in aided colleges, with all good intention the government has introduced the value education as a compulsory scheme at the undergraduate level. But each university has its own syllabus for the same. The scrutiny of those syllabi also reveals a lot of variations in conceiving the value education. In some universities, some religion based institutions are given the responsibility of designing and even carrying out the course. Similarly the teachers who have not been exposed to any such type of training in value education are given the responsibility of teaching values. The introduction of value education for all under graduate courses is done at the cost of a core paper of that course. The teachers who have been handling their hardcore subject papers had to meet the shortage of workload due to this programme and to solve this problem, they have been entrusted with the job of teaching value education paper. This is done with the aim of avoiding the workload problem of existing teachers. The most valuable and sensitive part of education has been made like a mechanical dogmatic part. At this juncture, the fate of value education at the college level could be imagined. How to solve this issue is again a challenge to the educationists of Tamilnadu. The same fate could be observed in many other states of India. Hence, two important problems surfaces here, one at the syllabus level and the other at the teaching level. As it is discussed earlier the syllabus could be designed by way of paying attention to all aspects but imparting the same requires not only innovative teaching methods, but also innovative training method of the educators. It is as good as training the driver to drive the car; the teacher needs to be trained in imparting the values. The technical education employs teachers with sound knowledge in the subject, similarly it is essential to have teachers with sound mind and creative teaching skill to teach value education. Value education is definitely not to be dealt with compartmentalization but it should be taken as a part of the whole educational system. As Nietzsche puts it, the society requires masters to create and impart values, not the slaves who accept all the values imposed on them without any critical understanding.

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The Management Paradox: A Lesson In Leadership

Most managers live in a world that is akin to a war-zone. There is a seemingly endless barrage of situations, problems, imperatives, and deliverables that confront them daily. Often in automatic mode, they execute solutions on the run, working extensively just to keep up with their challenging workloads. They are exhausted and, yet, exhilarated.Trapped in this mode, it is impossible for managers to ever get ahead. They are pursuing “the now” or, even worse, “the past” where some issues remain unresolved. There just isn’t any time for reflecting on things, let alone anticipating and planning for the future. The manager’s default position is dedicated to reaction. Given this unhappy picture of a manager’s world, how can one extricate her/himself from this conundrum?The Other SideIn order to begin to formulate a solution, it is critical to appreciate what’s on the other side of the management equation: what it is and what’s happening there. The other side is the manager’s employees. These are the resources which the organization has made available to support the manager in achieving performance.There often is a dramatic variance in perceptions between what the manager believes the employees want and what, in fact, those employees desire. Most employees want more than just a paycheque – they really want to be educated, engaged and respected.Employee surveys consistently verify that the majority of employees:• Want to have access to more business-related information
• Want to be involved more seriously in solving problems
• Want to be engaged more fully in decisions affecting their work
• Want to assume increased responsibility, authority and accountability
• Want to make more significant contributions to the organizationBecause, your employees represent a vast reservoir of under-utilized knowledge, talent and ideas, the solution is to accommodate these aspirational goals of your employees, while concurrently satisfying the needs of the organization. The manager’s imperative, therefore, is to achieve this delicate balance and alignment.The Management ParadoxSo, the Management Paradox is shown to be simply that while the manager is inundated and overloaded, the employees are available and desirous to assume higher value assignments. Managers must stretch beyond their bias that affirms that only they are capable of certain activities and create new ways of arranging and distributing work, through engaging their employees in broader functions.Some business owners and managers will discount this notion out-of-hand. They will contend that their employees lack the motivation and basic skills to assume more responsibility. They will cite examples of sub-par performance and ineffectiveness. They will echo the low esteem that they manifest toward their workforce.I challenge such thinking with the suggestion that those instances primarily are the outcome of a colossal failure of management – that it is actually the manager who is de-motivating their employees. Setting a higher standard and supporting your employees to excel is what effective managers do.Another VoiceLet me say this in a different way. In one corner is the manager who is struggling with an overwhelming workload. Achievement, it is thought, will be the result of just expending more time and effort. The manager assumes total ownership, not only of the outcome, but also of doing the actual activity. This is painful and it is self-inflicted.In the other corner are the manager’s employees who really desire more. So while the manager is run ragged, the employees are left spinning their wheels. If you don’t trust my views, just ask them. They’ll tell you the right answer. Isn’t it worth trying another approach?Required ActionsI have heard managers say: “They don’t need to know that.” The manager, in this instance, is presuming not only to understand what employees want, but also to have considered thoroughly what information is appropriate for them. Only through ongoing conversations and the sharing of relevant information can this gap be narrowed.Employees are significantly more intimate with their jobs than is their manager. As such, they are better able to identify bottlenecks, process inefficiencies and other problem areas. Invariably, they also will have many sensible and achievable ideas for making improvements.The manager needs to cultivate and support the conditions for team problem solving, while developing this expertise in their employees. And when decisions are made to endorse solutions that were suggested by employees, the resulting implementation always becomes highly energized, effective and sustainable.As a manager shares more information with employees and engages them substantially in the problem solving process, both the competence and confidence of the employees become enhanced. This creates a fertile opportunity for the manager to delegate more responsibility and authority to those employees, thereby sharing the workload in a different and new manner. The result is that the employees are more satisfied and the manager finally has some time to anticipate and plan for the future.Employees, who are better informed, more engaged, and have increased responsibility with corresponding authority, will embrace a regime of personal accountability. This will translate into a positive work environment where everyone is committed to making the maximum contribution to the organization’s success.Implementing ChangeImplementing this kind of change is a deliberate act of management. It requires a vision for a different type of workplace and a new set of relationships.It will challenge the inherent beliefs that a manager may hold and, for many, this can be an uncomfortable and threatening experience. The manager needs to become comfortable with the concept of a new coaching role that is more employee-centric.Employees also will need to develop supplementary skills in order to master their expanded responsibilities and gain confidence in their newly-enhanced roles. In addition, the overall process requires high-level planning and co-ordination.

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Know How Internet Marketing Will Benefit You in Your Travel Business

Tourism is one of the leading and best ever mounting commercial ventures with travel being one of its prime and most crucial sectors. Basically, without the quick development of the travel business, tourism would not have turned into the world’s most dynamic industry. Likewise, innovation, particularly online marketing is the way to high achievement.In the event that you are hoping to fire up a travel organization, it is critical that you are fruitful with your marking and advertising online and by word of mouth. Since the travel industry is bloodthirsty, it is essential to have an appealing logo and something critical. Actually, the travel business is one of the earliest that went on the web.The nature of the business was in an ideal world reasonable to go on the web. Since travel has a couple of topographical limits, the handiness of e-tickets, checking-in on the web, the capacity to book inns on the web, contact traveler associations on the web, and so forth have been conceivable because of the continuous development of online marketing.The other super benefits of online marketing are presented below:Long Term MarketingThe outcome of online marketing is long lasting and enduring when contrasted with other marketing programs. On the off chance that a business utilizes SEO services utilizing proper keywords then it will be in top page in web crawlers for a while or more. Online can turn into a web sensation through an article, email, video, sound, and so forth advertising effort on the web, permitting individuals to peruse or discover the information from videos, articles for a drawn out stretch of time. A few cases of marketing videos that have gone viral include that for IKEA.Wider AudienceOnline marketing offers almost prompt access to potential customers by spreading the word about a product, service, or a new company. It offers the advertiser or entrepreneurs to attain an expansive number of targeted customers, or individuals, all in all, covering bulky geographical regions, or the world. Online marketing is financially savvy in light of the fact that there are no logistics costs, rents for office spaces, pay rates and/or commissions for deals groups, and so on involved in it. Internet marketing can drive a great deal of traffic to travel sites, change over clients in a flash.Upgrade Your Business OnlineOnline marketing is swapping or contending with traditional business marketing these days in all business areas. Still in this era of high-tech, numerous entrepreneurs or organizations do their business by direct marketing, professional listings, business directory, radio commercials, and so forth. Satellite-based multi-stations TV is an extremely well known and one of the best media for business advancement. However, nowadays online marketing has ended up a standout amongst the most imperative apparatuses for business advancements, particularly in the hotel business, travel industry, the Insurance business, and so on.Target Your AudiencePicking the privilege keywords can be precarious when running internet marketing to get sought results from web search tools. Vacationer administrators, hotels, travel organizations, airlines, and so forth organizations or companies need to post engaging content that will keep their guest perusing and turn over them into deals. On the off chance that you are focusing on imminent clients from everywhere throughout the globe, then ensure you set up advertisements focusing on the dialect of your targeted individuals. For instance, you can pick the dialect of advertisements or even your content to be translated into the one that they talk.Connect With the Global AudienceWeb advertising has several paybacks over traditional business marketing. In Internet marketing, you can target your customer from the local area to everywhere throughout the world. You can reach the million of the customer through internet marketing. In internet marketing all over the globe is your commercial center. So more will be market coverage and more will be odds of getting the new customer for your business.Cost EffectiveInternet marketing is financially effective in comparison to other existing marketing campaigns. Indeed, even you can utilize Internet marketing for your business without spending any cash by creating the articles about your business, online networking advertising, and so on. In view of this, it is viewed as the least expensive medium for business advancement. One of the profits of the web marketing is client following. You can track the client effectively, you can think about their purchasing practices and different details on your site.Relevant InformationThe pace of technology is changing so quick that individuals are likewise turning out to be more tech savvy. More and more people are swinging to the Internet searching for information, products, and services consistently. Information is a vast service people are continuously searching for to empower them to take a choice on voyaging, travel plans, and other related information. At the point when a business goes online, it can achieve market sections on a worldwide scale. Accordingly, internet advertising helps you in extending your business around the world.You may have your own opinion about the benefits that your travel industry or any of you individuals view in your daily life. Be cool to share with me. Hope to hear from you.

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